Print ISSN: 1814-6120

Online ISSN: 2311-8385

Volume 16, Issue 2

Volume 16, Issue 2, Autumn 2016, Page 1-118

A Study on Using Fluidized Bed Reactor for Treating Sanitary Sewage

Kifah M. Khudhair; Mudhar H. Gatea

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) is an attached growth
the system used mainly for biological treatment of industrial
wastewater of high organic content. These wastewaters are
usually resulted from refineries and milk, starch, and olive oil
industries. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of
fluidized bed reactor for treating sanitary sewage. The study was
accomplished using a pilot plant of the FBR. The pilot plant was
constructed and installed in Hamdan Sewage Treatment Plant in
Basrah governorate. That was to maintain continuous source of
settled sewage which is the influent to the FBR. The period of
plant operation was nine weeks. During, this period, the plant
was operated at three phases of different conditions (up the flow
velocity and recirculation ratio). To study the performance of
FBR, the main measured parameters were; BOD, DO, VSS, pH,
and temperature. The most important conclusions of this study
are; (1) the maximum efficiency of BOD removal is 78.6% which
was obtained for hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24min and
upflow velocity of 1.59m/min, (2) the effluent BOD values during
phases-1 and 2 of plant operation match that of stabilization
ponds and trickling filters and during phase-3 matches that
activated sludge process, (3) during all operation phases, the
values of effluent pH are within the limits specified in national
standards of secondary effluents, (4) as F/M increases, the
efficiency of BOD removal decreases and the maximum
the efficiency of BOD removal (78.6%) was obtained at F/M ratio
equals 23.47 day-1, and (5) the HRT of fluidized bed reactor is on
order of minutes, while, the values of HRT of activated sludge
systems and stabilization ponds are on the order of hours and days,

Hybrid approach for multi-node localization and Identification

Ola A. Hasan; Abdulmuttalib T. Rashid; Ramzy S. Ali

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 11-20

In this paper, a new approach for the positioning
(localization) of multi-node systems is presented. Each node
including the beacon node contains two types of sensors: one
for the distance sensing and the other type is for
communication. The main idea of our proposed approach is to
use the control of beacon to construct anodes' tree which is
going to be used later by the nodes to know the paths in which
the information will flow. During the tree construction, the
identities of nodes will be known. Every node except the
beacon will use the information obtained from its previous
neighbor in the tree to find its own location and orientation.
Several simulations using visual basic 2012 are implemented to
discern the performance of this algorithm.

Sound Signal Analysis Using FIR Filters for Musical Fountain Operation

Ali M. Jasim; Jawad R. Mahmood; Ramzy S. Ali

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 21-28

In digital signal processing (DSP), FIR digital filter is
very important device to deal with particular frequencies of a
certain signal to be appropriate for some applications such as
communications, sound equalizers, etc. In this paper, FIR
filters are adapted to decompose the original sound signal into
four signals. Each one is created by one FIR filter and each
filter represents a narrow band of frequencies. The filter
output is used to drive a certain variable speed drive (VSD) to
control the speed of a water pump and light intensity of a
colored lamp. This filter output signal is applied to the analog
control voltage terminals of the VSD unit to control the
frequency and magnitude of the voltage supplied to the lamp
and pump. Thus, the heads of the water jets and the light
intensity is controlled according to the analog control signals
which are created by the FIR filters (The VSD is used to map
the filter output into light intensity and water head by
controlling the supplied voltage of them). The goal of this study
is to design and simulate four sound harmonics bands
produced by FIR filters to drive four VSDs which are
simulated using V/F ratio constant method for musical
fountain operation.

Leader Follower Tracking with Obstacle Avoidance using Circular Paths Algorithm

Abdulmuttalib T. Rashid

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 29-47

This paper deals with a new algorithm called circular
paths for leader follower tracking with obstacle avoidance
using. In leader-follower tracking, one robot acts as a leader
with defined motion and the other robot acts as a follower which
position itself in accordance with the position and orientation of
the leader. The leader movement is dependent on an assigned
trajectory and the follower movement is dependent on the
circular paths algorithm. In each step, this algorithm constructs
a circular path using three points represented by the next step
position of the leader robot, the last step position and the
current step position of the follower robot. The next position of
the follower robot lays on the circumstance of the circular path
and the orientation is represented by the tangent line to this
circular path at this next position of the follower robot. When
an obstacle intersect any circular path for the follower robot,
then this path must be replaced by another circular path
construct from the two positions of the follower robot and the
leader position is replaced by the tangent point to the obstacle.
Simulation results illustrate the soundness of this algorithm

Prediction-Based Path Planning with Obstacle Avoidance in Dynamic Target Environment

Zahraa Y. Ibrahim; Abdulmuttalib T. Rashid; Ali F. Marhoon

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 48-60

In this paper, a new algorithm for mobile robot navigation and polygonal obstacles avoidance in dynamic target environment is introduced. In the dynamic target path planning the
agent (robot) trying to reach a moving target in minimum path
cost. The introduced algorithm which called Prediction-based
path planning with obstacle avoidance in dynamic target environment planning a path to a moving target by predicting the next
target location, then computing a path from the robot current location to the predicted target location representing each visible
obstacle by the smallest circle that enclosing the polygon obstacle,
then determine the visible tangents between the robot and the circular obstacle that intersect its shortest path and compute the
shortest path. Three target movement scenarios were suggested
and tested in different environment conditions. The results show
that the target was reached in all scenarios and under all environment conditions with good path cost.

Suitability of Groundwater in Basrah Province for Industrial, Construction and Agricultural Purposes

Ammar S. Dawood; Abdul Hussain A. Abbas; Zainab M. Alhasan

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 61-70

This study aims to evaluate the quality of groundwater
samples in the south of Basrah Province for industrial, construction
and agricultural purposes. Groundwater samples were collected
in summer season of the year 2015 from (29) wells located in
different districts in Basrah province (Safwan, Zubair, and UmQasir). The groundwater samples were analyzed for pH,
electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and
other major ions. The chemical results indicate that the
groundwater in the study area was unsuitable for industrial uses
according to standard classification. Some other standard
classification recommended that the unsuitable groundwater
could be used after treatment of some of its element while
groundwater in the study area may be used for construction
purposes with a suitable treatment of high ions concentration.
After studying the factors that determine the suitability of
groundwater for irrigation purpose such as pH, electrical
conductivity, total dissolved solids, Sodium ratio(Na%) and
sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The groundwater in study area
can be classify based on (EC) values, as unacceptable for
irrigation except for very salt-tolerant plants and excellent
drainage. According to other parameters like Na% and SAR,
groundwater of the study area is classified as poor to very poor
water and need for suitable treatment before using it

Evaluation the Effect of Residual Stress on Fracture of Polyethylene Pipe under Pressure Loading

Haider Hadi Jasim

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 71-78

In this paper, the Weibull uni-axial and multi-axial
the distribution function for polyethylene pipes under pressure loading
were developed and analyzed taking account of residual stress.
The tensile test was achieved to determine mechanical properties and
the Weibull parameters. An experimental method using the hole drilling strain-gage method was used to measure the residual
stresses in PE pipe and compare with that obtained from
numerical finite element method (FEM). The obtained results
show that there is a convergence between uni-axial and multi-axial
distribution function, but multi-axial distribution function give
large values compared to the uni-axial distribution function. It was
observed that the residual stresses have influence on failure
assessment diagram and cause translation from elastic-plastic
failure to brittle failure.

The Influence of Aggregates on Punching Shear Resistance of Slabs-Without Shear Reinforcement

Rizgar Amin

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 79-88

The choice of aggregate type in producing
reinforced concrete depends on the availability of the source
sometimes and the intended concrete requirements like
lightweight or normal aggregate concrete or high strength
concrete. The punching shear resistance is being considered to
be influenced by numbers of parameters including aggregate
size and types. These parameters have not accounted in most of
codes of design and have given a little attention by researchers.
Most of the available knowledge is based on outcomes from
experimental works on beams. In this paper, the considerable
slab tests without shear reinforcement are collected from
literature in which aggregate types and sizes are given and they
were failed in punching. The test results are compared to those
calculated by ACI, EC2 and CSCT. The deficits of shear
resistance are found clear where high compressive strength is
combined with reinforcement ratio.

Numerical investigation for enhancement of heat transfer in internally finned tubes using ANSYS CFX program

Ali Shakir; Ammar Ali; Nawfel Mohammed

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 89-99

In this study, a numerical investigation has been carried
out for single phase flow behavior for thirty six internally finned
tubes to demonstrate the effect of axial pitch to fin height ratio
(p/e) for 0.8≤p/e≤6.345, helix angle of internal fins (β) for
30°≤β≤70°, apex angle of internal fins (α) for 0°≤α≤53.13°, internal
fin height (e) for 0.6mm≤e≤1.0mm, internal tube diameter (di)
with 14 mm and Reynolds number (Re) of single-phase flow for
10000≤Re≤50000 on enhancement of forced convection heat
transfer and reduction of friction factor by using ANSYS CFX
program. It solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
for steady state turbulent with SST model and enhance wall
treatment. The numerical analysis provided at fully developed
velocity and temperature. Numerical results showed that the
smallest axial pitch to fin height ratio (p/e) =0.8 and with apex
angle α=10 degree provided enhancement of heat transfer of 2.8 to
3.55 times higher than of smooth tube. Finally, present numerical
results are seen to be in good agreement with literature
experimental correlations

Combined Solar Chimney Power Plant and Solar Still

Salman H. Hammadi

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 100-107

This study presents solar chimney power plant
integrated with seawater desalination system. A simple
mathematical model is based on the conservation of mass
and energy. The results show that the integrated system of
solar chimney power plant and solar still can achieve
simultaneously. The analysis is performed for both
summer and winter at latitude 30oN. It’s noted that the
water layer thickness is of a significant effect on the freshwater productivity while the dimensions of solar chimney
and the solar collector are of a minor effect. The
productivity of fresh water and output power for summer
are the highest. The present work is compared with
experimental data of the other work and showed a good

Reliability of the Installation and Operation of Pipeline Systems

S. M. Beden

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 108-118

Pipelines are one of the most convenient and effective
ways of transporting petrol over a long distance. The environment
applies, beyond extremely high external pressures, low
temperatures and intensive corrosive process, the occurrence of
defects on the pipe body, which compromises the structural
integrity of pipelines leading to catastrophic failures. The main
modifications concern the mechanical resistance, toughness at low
temperatures weld ability and resistance to embrittlement related
to hydrogen. Among mechanical characteristics, the fracture
toughness is very important for pipeline steels in design and safe
assessment. Aiming to enhance the reliability and operation of
complex pipelines system, a study based on the mechanics of the
elastoplastic fracture in order to determine better prediction of the
fatigue life. The materials tested here are API 5L X42 and X52
micro alloyed steels, as well as to evidence the toughness resistance
of these materials. Results indicated that both X42 and X52 steel
behave in a similar way and in all cases a slight increase of the
transition temperature was found. The characteristic toughness
value shows an evident loss in mechanical performances if
compared to the uncharged one.