Print ISSN: 1814-6120

Online ISSN: 2311-8385

Volume 15, Issue 1

Volume 15, Issue 1, Autumn 2015, Page 1-131


Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Based on PID Controller

Haroutuon A. Hairik; H. Thejel; Rabee; Samar Hameed

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

This study presents a speed control design for switched
reluctance motor (SRM) drive based on PID controller. The
applications of Switched Reluctance Motors (SRMs) have being
increased day by day, but this type of motors represents a highly
nonlinear system, therefore there are a lot of difficulties in
modeling and controlling them. We have proposed a non-linear
mathematical model of a four phases 8/6 poles SRM then
simulated it through Simulink/Matlab facilities. The whole
control mechanism consists of a hysteresis current controller to
minimize the torque ripple and a PID speed controller. The
control design results are then validated in real-time by
Simulink/Matlab software package.

Modeling Of Self-Organization Fish School System By Neural Network System

Mofeed T. Rashid

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

In this paper, a Neural Network (NN) model
system for self-organization fish school system is
identified. Monitoring and data extraction from fish
school video has been achieved by using image
processing technique in order to generate the data
suitable for parameter identification of NN model
system. Data obtained have been used to identify the
parameters of a model based on a black-box
represented by nonlinear autoregressive exogenous
model (NARX). The obtained results show that this
system can be used for multi robot formation system.
Keywords Self organizing, Fish school, Neural network
model, NARX model.

Study the Effect of Preparation and Diagnosis of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) As Additive Modification on Concrete Properties

Thamir Salman Bachari

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 25-31

The polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was prepared from PET flakes of empty local water drinking bottles and diagnosis by infrared spectroscopy (IR). The glass transition temperature, melting temperature Tm and heat capacity were indicated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Part hundred ratios (phr,s) of (PET) were added to study its effect on concrete properties. Additives of (phr) impart performance such as increased cement dispersion, enabling drastically reduced water requirements. Enhance the mortar cubes performance; depend on the compatibility of cement with PET. Porosity of mortar cubes with cement, sand and added PET products were calculated. Maximum and minimum Compressive strength were calculated 58.76 MPa, and 24.0 MPa at phr 0.04 and 0.07 of PET with cement. And PET with cement and sand were calculated 16.5 MPa and 4 MPa at dosages 0.03 gm. and 0.08 gm. The relative dosages in calculating porosity percentages are (0.06, 0.1 and 0.3) gm.

Numerical Investigation for Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Internally Finned Tubes Using ANSYS CFX Program

Ali Shakir; Ammar O; Nofil Baqer

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 32-42

In this study, a numerical investigation has been carried out for single phase flow behavior for thirty six internally finned tubes to demonstrate the effect of axial pitch to fin height ratio (p/e) for 0.8≤p/e≤6.345, helix angle of internal fins (β) for 30°≤β≤70°, apex angle of internal fins (α) for 0°≤α≤53.13°, internal fin height (e) for 0.6mm≤e≤1.0mm, internal tube diameter (di) with 14 mm and Reynolds number (Re) of single phase flow for 10000≤Re≤50000 on enhancement of forced convection heat transfer and reduction of friction factor by using ANSYS CFX program. It solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for steady state turbulent with SST model and enhance wall treatment. The numerical analysis provided at fully developed velocity and temperature. Numerical results showed that the smallest axial pitch to fin height ratio (p/e) =0.8 and with apex angle α=10 degree provided enhancement of heat transfer of 2.8 to 3.55 times higher than of smooth tube. Finally, present numerical results are seen to be in good agreement with literature experimental correlations.

The Effect of Adding ZrO2-Cu Coating on the Physical Properties of Aluminium Matrix

ABD AL-ALKAREEM FLAEH; NUHA HADI JASIM

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 43-49

In this study the powder metallurgy technique was used to prepare the composite materials using the aluminum powder as the basis metal, with the additions of the 2, 4 and 6%Wt. of ZrO2-Cu coating and mixing it manually for 15 minutes at (30-32 oC). Then the mixture are compacted at pressure 320 MPa and sintering at 640oC in the atmosphere furnace with argon gas protection.
The physical properties include the green density, sintering density, porosity, and microstructure were examined for the prepared samples. X-ray analyzer was used to identify the phases changes in order to find the chemical reaction which it can be excepted occurred in the sintering samples. The result of X-Ray diffraction shows that there is new phase exist after sintering for all weight percentage.

Effect of Pollution on the Mechanical Properties of Clay Soil in Basrah (Garmatt Ali Zone), Iraq

Nema Y. Saeed; Nabeel A.Jasim; Fatimah Khalil Ibrahim

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 50-62

The effect of pore fluid chemistry on the engineering properties of soil in Garmatt-Ali zone of Basrah was investigated. The tested soil is described as silty clay of low plasticity. The pore fluid was altered to include distilled water, raw sewage, and solutions of various salts such calcium carbonate, magnesium sulphate, and calcium chloride. Also, the solutions of salts were used with different concentration (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 normality).
The prepared samples of soil were tested after different exposure periods.
The test program included determination of shear strength characteristics, consolidation characteristics, and Atterberg limits. The changes in shear strength, coefficient of permeability, void ratio – effective stress relationship, and Atterberg limits were recorded with the change in exposure period or the concentration of pore fluid solution.
Generally, it was found that there are reductions in the shear strength of soil when the pore fluid is changed from distilled water to solutions of salts or raw sewage. Also it was found that there is a change in the calculated values of permeability, upon changing the type of pore fluid. The coefficient of consolidation for polluted soil was found to be less than that for the reference samples with distilled water.

Optimum Management of Basrah Coastal Aquifer Use under Seawater Intrusion

Ammar A. Akesh Al-Suraifi; Ahmed M. Al-Kadhumi

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 63-74

This study presents an attempt for establishment of sustainable development and management policies for utilization of Basrah coastal aquifer. The simulation/optimization approach is used with application to Um-Qasr aquifer in Basrah. In this research, 5 management schemes for sustainable use of a coastal aquifer exposed to seawater intrusion were developed and solved. The objective of the management models is to maximize the total amount of water pumped from the aquifer for beneficial use, and optimum location, numbers and redistribution of wells. Salt concentration of the pumped water from each of the pumping well was considered as a main constraint together with the minimum water head which is considered to control saltwater intrusion by heads balances with time. Solutions of the management schemes are based on a linkage between a simulation module SEAWAT and Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm optimization module. The heads and concentrations, calculated by the simulation model based on pumping rates, are used in a SA optimization procedure to achieve an optimum solution. The five multi-objective management schemes were applied on Um-Qasr coastal aquifer. The results show that using simulation / optimization approach in Um-Qasr region can improve planning and management policies and can give better decision for aquifer utilization. The results show that the aquifer can safely increase its pumping rate by (175%) greater than its current abstraction according to the results of schemes 1.

Effect of Soil –Structure Interaction on Seismic Evaluation of Existing Building Frames Resting on Raft Foundation

Husain Khalaf Jarallah

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 75-85

The objective of the present paper is to evaluate the effects of the soil-structure interaction on the seismic evaluation in the building when a framed building is supported on raft foundation. Also the foundation-soil interaction effect has been considered by replacing it with equivalent springs. Nonlinear static pushover analyses of eight-storey reinforced concrete hospital building located at Delhi-India has been performed using the Capacity Spectrum Method of ATC-40. The deformations define the state of damage in the structure through three limit states of the NEHRP Guidelines and the FEMA-356 have been used to evaluate the performance level of the building for drift, the plastic hinge stage of the crack and shear under the condition of the fixed base and the effect of the soil-structure interaction. The performance of the building and individual components has been estimated for Design Basis Earthquake and Maximum Considered Earthquake. The weight of the slab was distributed as triangular and trapezoidal loads to the surrounding beams as per IS 456:2000. The weight of the brick masonry was distributed uniformly on the beams. The results show that the soil structure interaction has marked effect on the roof displacement, storey drift, design base shear, effective damping and crack pattern for beams and columns while there is a minor effect on the torsional behavior of the building. The building is more critical in the performance level when considering the soil flexibility.

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Cylindrical Shells

David A.M.Jawad

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 86-97

The study investigates the behavior of reinforced
concrete cylindrical shells under monotonically increasing
loads. Three-dimensional models of six small-scale
experimental shells with length-to-radius ratios ranging from
short (0.84) to long (5.0) are implemented within the context of
the finite element method, through use of the ANSYS
computer code, and the nonlinear response is traced
throughout the entire load range up to failure. Cracking
occurs at working load levels, with subsequent reduction in
shell stiffness. Increasing loads lead to failure modes varying
from a beam failure in long shells, combined longitudinal and
transverse cracking in intermediate length shells, and abrupt
diagonal with limited transverse cracking in short shells.
Ultimate load capacities range from 5.0 kPa to 60.0 kPa
increasing with decreasing length-to-radius ratios.

Synthesis and Characterization of a New U.V. Absorber for Low Density Polyethylene

Salah A. Niema

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 98-102

A new photostabiliser, U.V. absorber 2, 4 – bis (4-ethylbenzoyl) resorcinol was prepared and characterized by different techniques such as spectroscopic method, elemental analysis, and moleculer weight determination. The absorber was examined for low-density polyethylene and compared with commercial U.V. absorber (Seesorb-100). The new photostabiliser, U.V. absorber showed higher ability to absorb U.V. light and more efficient for photostabilisation for low-density polyethylene, i.e, the o

Fatigue Crack Propagation in Ceramic Wheel Used For Gas Turbine

HAIDER HADI JASIM

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 103-109

This paper studies and compared the fatigue crack
propagation rate da/dN for three kinds of ceramic wheel
(model A, model B, and model C) made of Si3N4 ceramic with
different additives used for gas turbine application. The stress
intensity factor range was calculated using finite element
method and then compared with analytical approximate
approaches. Experimental fatigue test was carried out on the
three specimens taken from the models. As a result, the types
of additives effect on fatigue crack propagation rate. The
model A has the highest da/dN values and model C exhibits the
lower values of da/dN.