Print ISSN: 1814-6120

Online ISSN: 2311-8385

Volume 11, Issue 1

Volume 11, Issue 1, Autumn 2011, Page 1-146

Influence of Crack Parameters and Loading Direction on Buckling Behavior of Cracked Plates Under Compression

Nathera Abdual Hassan Saleh

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

The aim of the present paper is to investigate buckling phenomenon of various cracked plates under compression load. The finite element procedure (ANSYS Package) is used to determine the critical buckling load by considering the effects of crack length and crack location (i.e. crack parameters) as well as loading direction parallel or perpendicular with respect to crack faces. It is found from the obtained results which are summarized graphically in figures that the crack parameters and loading direction have significant effects on the critical buckling load (i.e. increased or decreased) of compressed cracked plates. The effects of these factors are discussed in detail. The useful and interesting conclusions drawn from this work will be helpful for health monitoring or condition assessment of aging plated structures with cracking damages

Performance Characteristics of Parallel Slip Flow Microchannel Heat Exchanger

Hazim Abdulrazzaq Hanoon; Ahmed K. M. Alshara

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 16-30

Parallel flow microchannel heat exchanger performance was numerically investigated, for laminar, 3-D, incompressible and steady state flow with slip flow and temperature jump conditions. The continuity, Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equations for the hot and cold fluids were solved by using finite volumes method and SIMPLE algorithm method with FORTRAN code to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions for the two fluids and the separated wall between them. The main investigation parameter that affected on the performance and effectiveness of heat exchanger are: Reynolds number Re, thermal conductivity ratio Kr, Knudsen number Kn, thickness of separating wall, heat capacity ratio Cr and aspect ratio α. Increasing of Reynolds number, Knudsen number, thickness of separating wall, heat capacity ratio and aspect ratio each separately leads to decrease the effectiveness while increasing of thermal conductivity ratio up to 10 leads to increase the effectiveness. Also, it is found that friction number and Nusselt number both decreases with increasing Knudsen number

Influence Of Wall Axial Heat Conduction On The Forced Convection Heat Transfer In Rectangular Channels

Mushtaq Ismael Hasan

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 31-43

In this paper the conjugate heat transfer in rectangular channel is numerically investigated, where the effect of both axial heat conduction and entrance region on the internal forced convection in rectangular channels are studied. With decreasing the dimensions of channels the thickness of walls become large and in order of the channels dimensions as in microchannels. As a results the heat conduction in the walls especially in the axial direction can not be ignored, since it lead to decrease in the efficiency of heat transfer process. Also the effect of entrance region is taken into consideration where the flow is assumed developing hydro dynamically and thermally. A finite volume method is used to numerically solve the conjugate heat transfer in both the fluid and wall simultaneously. The results obtained shows that the existing of axial heat conduction lead to reduction in the heat transfer and it's effect increased with increasing the thickness of walls and Reynolds number. In this paper a correlation has been developed to calculate the value of axial heat conduction in channel's walls based on most of the affecting parameters. This correlation can be used accurately to compute the value of axial conduction in rectangular channels

Numerical Study of Laminar Free Convection Heat Transfer inside Porous Media -Filled Triangular Enclosure

Falah Assi Abood

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 44-56

The natural convection heat transfer in a porous media filled and isothermally heated from the bottom wall of triangular enclosure is analyzed using finite element software package (FLEXPDE). Darcy's law was used to write equations of porous media . The curved bottom wall shape, with Radii R= 0.8 , 1 and 1.5, was applied to a triangular enclosure. The boundary condition of the vertical wall is isothermal and of the inclined wall is adiabatic. The study was performed for different Rayleigh numbers (100 ≤ Ra ≤ 1000 ) and aspect ratios (0.4 ≤ AR ≤ 1 ) . Numerical results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers. It was observed that heat transfer enhancement was formed with increasing Rayleigh number and aspect ratio . A comparison of the flow field and isotherm field is made with that obtained by [11], which revealed a good agreement .

Steady Laminar Natural Convection Heat Transfer inside Air-Filled Horizontal Triangular Enclosure Containing Three Cylindrical Rods

Muneer A. Ismael; Falah Assi Abood

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 57-71

The natural convection heat transfer from horizontal isothermal three cylindrical rods inside equilateral triangular enclosure has been studied numerically. The enclosure is filled with air, and the heated rods are located at equal distances (E) from triangle center. A finite element software package (FLEXPDE) is used in the present study to solve the set of non-linear equations governing the process. Solutions are obtained for aspect ratio D/H=1/6 and range of distance E=0.2-0.6 and Rayleigh (Ra) number changes from 103 to 106. The effect of Ra and E were examined. Results are presented by streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt number and it indicates that the Nusselt number is significantly increase with increasing both Ra and E. A comparison of the Nusselt number was made with that obtained by [7], and showed substantial improvement to about 65% in some cases

Study of Failure of the Steam Tubes of Boiler Furnaces in Najebia Power Plant

Haider M. Mohammed; Saleh E. Najim

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 72-81

Failures in the steam tubes of boiler furnaces in Najebia power plant was studied experimentally. Visual examination, mechanical tests, microscopic test and chemical analyses were performed. Visual examination showed the types of failure in the tubes. Tensile and hardness tests were performed to estimate the variation in the mechanical properties of the tubes metal and compared with the new tubes. Microscopic test for the failed tubes used to recognize the difference in the microstructure to the metal of the tubes. Chemical analyses involved chemical composition of the tubes metal, river and feed water analyses, water treatment, fuel analyses and analysis of deposits and oxides on the external and internal sides. Overheating and wall thinning of the tubes resulted from oxygen escaping to the inner side of these tubes, and presence of deposits and oxides on the external and internal sides which led to failure was studied extensively. Engineering remedies were also given to confine the problem and to prevent it in future.

Artificial Neural Network Prediction Model for Impact Energy of Thermal Aged Cast Stainless Steel

Haider M. Mohammed

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 82-87

Impact energy prediction of thermal aged cast stainless steel from impact test was studied using artificial neural network (ANN) modeling. Impact energy data for specimens from eleven cast stainless steel alloys at different aging times and temperatures, were used to evaluate possible artificial neural network architecture for prediction impact energy. These data are taken from Argonne National Laboratories (ANL) in USA that involved impact test results of cast stainless steel after aging between 200 and 400oC for up to 30000 hour. The ANN model exhibited excellent comparison with experimental results of ANL i.e. correlation coefficient (R=0.9451) and mean square error (MSE=1.2*10-5). Since a large number of variables were used during training the ANN model, a reliable and useful predictor for impact energy in thermal aged cast stainless steel was provided.


Nabeel A. Jasim

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 88-100

A spandrel beam is a structural member lies at the edge of a frame and is connected by a joint to the floor beam extending into the slab. The spandrel beams are primarily responsible for transferring forces from a slab to the supporting edge columns. This work investigates the possibility of using the artificial neural networks to model the complicated nonlinear relationship between the various input parameters associated with reinforced concrete spandrel beams and the actual ultimate strength of them. The descent gradient backpropagation algorithm was employed for predicting the ultimate strength of the reinforced concrete spandrel beams. The optimum topology (which gives least mean square error for both training and testing with fewer number of epochs) is presented. Effects of parameters such as, number of hidden layer(s), number of nodes in the input layer, output layer and hidden layer(s), initialization weight factors and selection of the learning rate and momentum coefficient on the behaviour of the neural network have been investigated. Because of the slow convergence of results when using descent gradient backpropagation, another algorithm which is faster called "resilient backpropagation algorithm" has been used. The neural network trained with the resilient backpropagation RPROP algorithm gives better results than that trained with the steepest descent algorithm with momentum GDM algorithm

Estimation of Land Soil Erosion Using Neural Network Model

Ahmed .M. H. Alkadhimi

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 101-114

The land surface erosion is controlled by multifarious of different parameters, such as slope, soil physical properties (texture, structure, permeability, etc.), rainfall, runoff, and crop cover. However, it is impossible to develop precise simplest mathematical model that can predict the values of land surface soil erosion due to the behavior of controlled parameters. This paper presents the Neural Networks Model for assessing land surface soil erosion as amass per unit area per unit of time. The model derives from the analysis data obtained from available literature and was formulated as linear regression model and back propagation algorithm neural model. Both models were built by correlating firstly five watersheds variables with land surface erosion and secondly ten watershed variables with land surface erosion. The coefficients for independent variables were highly significant for both models. The case of correlating 10- watershed variables with land surface erosion gives R=0.978 & 0.976 for both models which is higher than that for 5- watershed variables. The mean absolute relative error (MARE%) is another procedure that used in order to evaluate the accuracy of the model and The average error % is 0.025 for (5) variables and 0.0064 for (10) variables. Both the supporting practices (P) and the slope length and slope steepness (LS) coefficients have a marked effect on the amount of land surface erosion in the case of 5- watershed variables. The amount of land surface erosion show a high level of sensitivity to the content of fine sand% in soil (FS) watershed variables on The amount of land surface soil erosion.

Control of Cascade Multilevel Inverter Using Fuzzy Logic Technique

Shafaa M. Salih; H. Thejel; Rabee

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 115-122

Cascade multilevel inverter is a power electronic device built to synthesize a desired ac voltage from several levels of dc voltages. Such inverters have been received increasing attention in the past few years for high power application. A small total harmonic distortion is the most important feature of these inverters. Cascade multilevel inverter is used in this work with proposed control circuit to control the output voltage using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM). PD-like Fuzzy+I controller is used to control this system to get the required output voltage. The results gained in this work prove the validity of the proposed controller of having an output voltage with minimum distortion.

A Simple Analytic Design Procedure for Lattice Wave Digital Filters with Approximate Linear Phase

Jassim M. Abdul-Jabbar

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 123-134

A simple analytic design procedure for Lattice Wave Digital Filters (LWDFs) is presented with approximate linear phase. The design is started by replacing one of the two all-pass filter branches in LWDF with a pure delay and terminated by some analytic design formulas. Using Matlab 7.4, several design examples of the odd order type utilizing such procedure are given for verifications.


Ali H. Ghawi

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 135-146

Supplying drinking water in Al-Dewanyia city to meet Iraqi Drinking Water Guidelines is a challenge as source waters contain high concentrations of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) that often exceed 12 mg/L Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). The US EPA indicates that enhanced coagulation is the best available technology to control DOC in drinking water treatment plants. A water director of Al-Qadissiya has used enhanced coagulation at Al-Dewanyia Water Treatment Plants (WTP’s) in Iraq since 2004 to improve water quality in the distribution system. NOM reduction has led to treated water with a lower chlorine demand allowing a greater residual penetration enabling improved bacteriological compliance. Since the cost of DOC (and Disinfection by-product DBPs) determination was high, it was decided to study the traditional analysis of COD as a surrogate measure to detect the organic constituents in raw water and the extent to which optimized coagulation with ferric chloride can increase COD removal. The water samples studied belonged to Al-Dewanyia River. For samples the observed values of COD removal by coagulation at lower pH (about 1-1.5 pH values less than the regular pH (5.8 ~ 8.5)) were about 85-95 percent without making water turbidity unacceptable. In order to determine the effects of organic content on coagulation, The results indicated that a modified coagulation process without need to much increasing the amount of coagulant can be developed for these water samples