Volume 18, Issue 2, Autumn 2018, Page 1-52

Optimal Fuzzy-Immune Fractional PID Control Scheme for Path Tracking of Robot manipulator

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

This paper explains a new control structure based on the
artificial immune system, Fuzzy and fractional order PID
control schemes. In this paper immune feedback control
system, Fuzzy logic and fractional order control schemes will be
combined and optimized using clonal selection algorithm.
Fuzzy-immune fractional order PID Control schemes will be
used as a new controller for path tracking of the robot
manipulator. The performance of the proposed control scheme
is compared with fuzzy-immune PID control schemes. The
parameters of fractional PID and conventional PID controllers
are optimized using Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA).
Simulation results state that optimal Fuzzy-immune fractional
PID is better than optimal fuzzy-immune PID Control schemes
for path tracking problem under the same condition. All control
schemes were tested using SIMULINK under MATLAB2014a

Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Utilizing Nanofluid and Subjected to Air Stream Cooling

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 15-25

In the present paper the natural convection in a square
cavity utilizing Cu-water nanofluid is examined numerically.
The cavity is exposed to cooling air stream with free stream
temperature (T∞) from left wall and its right and bottom walls
kept with cold and hot temperatures (TC) and (TH) respectively,
while the cavity top wall considered as adiabatic. The nanofluid
flow inside the cavity is assumed to be laminar and obeying to
Boussinesq approximation. The governing equations are solved
by finite volume method using ANSYS FLUENT code. The
results are accomplished with a range of nanofluid volume
fraction =0–0.16, Rayleigh number Ra=103–105 and free
stream Reynolds number Re∞=103–104. The effects of these
variables are displayed on the stream function (), isotherms ()
contours and average Nusselt number (Nuavg). The results show
the heat transfer rate augmented with increasing , Ra and Re∞.
Also, the increment in both  and Ra increases the circulation
inside the cavity while increasing Re∞ produces secondary
vortices and reduces circulation at the main vortex of the cavity.
The results of local Nusselt number (Nu) and isotherms () are
compared with other studies and show good agreement with
maximum error values 14.28% and 3.2% respectively.

Study the Effected Parameters on Vibration Analysis of Cantilever Beam with a Bolted Joint

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 26-39

The main objective of the present paper is to study the
vibration behavior of cantilever beam with a bolted joint of
different lap’s type (i.e. Single lap, Double lap) for free and
forced vibration. The effects of various parameters such as beam
configuration, preload, harmonic force magnitude and harmonic
force positions on natural frequency, mode shape, and amplitude
have been investigated. The experimental work carried out
during this study included material selection, chemical
composition test, tension test, preparation configurations of
beam, free and forced vibration tests at per- torques range (6-
60N.m) and at rotational speeds range (300-900RPM).
Numerically, a general purpose finite element method (ANSYS
Ver.16.1 package) has been used. The results show that the
natural frequencies of single lap (1Bolt, 2Bolt) bolted beams were
roughly equal to those of intact beam. But, in double lap bolted
beam were slightly lower than those of intact beam with same
profile. Moreover, as preload or pre-torque on the bolt increases,
the natural frequency becomes constant for all types of beam
configuration. For forced vibration, the vibration amplitude is
largely dependent on magnitude and position of harmonic force.
The validation results present a good agreement with numerical
results as the largest margin of error is about (5%)

Investigation of the Effect of Loading Paths in the Tube Hydroforming Process

Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 40-52

The precise control of internal pressure and
axial feeding loading paths important influences the
final tube quality. In this research the impact of
loading path of the tube hydroforming process and
final part requirements ( i.e. thickness specification
and shape conformation) were studied numerically.
Small bulge shape tube hydroforming parts were
utilized in the finite element analyses to get several
guidelines on the effect of the relation between the
internal pressure and axial compressive feeding
programs. Two dimension model of bulge shape tube
(50 mm) bulge width has been developed from
cylindrical tube with thickness (2mm) of the copper
and (60 mm) outer diameter. A commercial available
finite element program code (ANSYS 11), is used to
perform the numerical simulation of the tube
hydroforming operation. The results demonstrate
that, the loading path has very important influenced
on the thickness distribution over the tube and
capability attained the target shape of the required